Semiotics was defined by Ferdinand de Saussure in the early years of the twentieth century as ‘the science of the life of signs in society.’ Robert Hodge and . Hodge and Kress begin from the assumption that signs and messages – the subject matter of semiotics – must always be situated within the context of social. Social semiotics (also social semantics) is a branch of the field of semiotics which investigates Robert Hodge and Gunther Kress’s Social Semiotics () focused on the uses of semiotic systems in social practice. They explain that the.
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Social semiotics also social semantics  is a branch of the field of semiotics which investigates human signifying practices in specific social and cultural circumstances, and which tries to explain meaning-making as a social practice.
Semiotics, as originally defined by Ferdinand de Saussureis “the science of the life of signs in society”. Social semiotics expands on Saussure’s founding insights by exploring the implications of the fact that the “codes” of language and communication are formed by social processes.
The crucial implication here is that meanings and semiotic systems are shaped by relations of power, and that as power shifts in society, our languages and hhodge systems of socially accepted meanings can and do change. Social semiotics is thus the study of the social dimensions of meaning, and of the power of human processes of signification and interpretation known as semiosis in shaping individuals and societies.
Social semiotics focuses on social meaning-making practices of all types, whether visual, verbal or aural in nature Thibault, These different systems for meaning-making, or possible “channels” e.
Semiotic modes can include visual, verbal, written, gestural and musical resources for communication. They also include various “multimodal” ensembles of any of these modes Kress and van Leeuwen, Social semiotics can include the study of how people design and interpret meanings, the study of texts, and the study of how semiotic systems are shaped by social interests and ideologies, and how they are adapted as society changes Hodge and Kress, Structuralist semiotics in the tradition of Ferdinand de Saussure focused primarily on theorising semiotic systems or structures termed langue by de Saussure, which change diachronically, i.
In contrast, social semiotics tries to account for the variability of semiotic practices termed parole by Saussure. This altered focus shows how individual creativity, changing historical circumstances, and new social identities and projects can all change patterns of usage and design Hodge and Kress, From a social semiotic perspective, rather than being fixed into unchanging “codes”, signs are considered to be resources which people use and adapt or “design” to make meaning.
In these respects, social semiotics was influenced by, and shares many of the preoccupations of pragmatics and sociolinguistics and has much in common with cultural studies and critical discourse analysis. The main task of social semiotics is to develop analytical and theoretical frameworks which can explain meaning-making in a social context Thibault, This work argues against the traditional separation between language and society, and exemplifies the start of a ‘semiotic’ approach, which broadens the narrow focus on written language in linguistics For Halliday, languages evolve as systems of “meaning potential” Halliday, For example, for Halliday, the grammar of the English language is a system organised for the following three purposes areas or “metafunctions”:.
Any sentence in English is composed like a musical composition, with one strand of its meaning coming from each of the three semiotic areas or metafunctions. Robert Hodge and Gunther Kress ‘s Social Semiotics focused on the uses of semiotic systems in social practice.
They explain that the social power of texts in society depends on interpretation: The work of interpretation can contest the power of hegemonic discourses. Hodge and Kress give the example of feminist activists defacing a sexist advertising billboard, and spray-painting it with a new, feminist message. Yet discourse disappears too rapidly, surrounding a flow of texts.
Hodge and Kress built on a range of traditions from linguistics including Noam ChomskyMichael HallidayBenjamin Lee Whorf and sociolinguisticsbut the major impetus for their work is the critical perspective on ideology and society that originates with Marx.
Hodge and Kress build a notion of semiosis as a dynamic process, where meaning is not determined by rigid structures, or predefined cultural codes. They argue that Ferdinand de Saussure ‘s structuralist semiotics avoided addressing questions about creativity, movement, and change in language, possibly in reaction to the diachronic linguistic traditions of his time the focus on the historical development from Indo-European.
Instead, Hodge and Kress propose to account for change in semiosis through the work sicial Charles Sanders Peirce. Meaning is a process, in their interpretation of Peirce.
They refer to Peirce’s triadic model of semiosis, which depicts the “action” of a sign as a limitless process of infinite semiosis, where one “interpretant” or idea linked to a sign generates another. The flow of these infinite processes of interpretation are constrained in Peirce’s model, they claim, by the material world the “object”and cultural rules of thought, or “habit”.
Social semiotics revisits De Saussure’s doctrine of the “arbitrariness of the linguistic sign “. This notion rests on the argument that the signifier only has an arbitrary relationship to the signified — in other words, that there is nothing about the sound or appearance of verbal signifiers as, for example, the words “dog” or “chien” eocial to suggest what they signify.
Hodge and Kress point out that questions of the referent become more complicated when semiotics moves beyond verbal language. On the one hand, there is the need to account for the continuum of relationships between the referent and the representation. Here, they draw on Pierce’s differentiation between iconic signification e.
Social semiotics also addresses the question of how societies and cultures maintain or shift these conventional bonds between signifier and signified.
De Saussure was unwilling to answer this question, Hodge and Kress claim.
Hdge leaves the socially determinist implication that meanings and interpretations are dictated from above, by “the whims of an inscrutably powerful collective being, Society. Social semiotics is currently extending this general framework beyond its linguistic origins to account for the growing importance of sound and visual images, and how modes of communication are combined in both traditional and digital media semiotics of social networking see, for example, Kress and van Leeuwen,thus approaching semiotics of culture Randviir Theorists such as Gunther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen have built on Halliday’s framework by providing new “grammars” for other semiotic modes.
Like language, these grammars are seen as socially formed and changeable sets of available “resources” for making meaning, which are also shaped by mress semiotic metafunctions originally identified by Halliday. The visual and aural modes have received particular attention. Accounting for multimodality communication in and across a range of semiotic modes – verbal, visual, and aural is considered a particularly important ongoing project, given the importance of the visual mode krrss contemporary communication.
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Social semiotics – Wikipedia
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