Classification of. Retaining walls. • Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain concrete. • Cantilever retaining wall-RCC. (Inverted T and L). • Counterfort retaining wall- RCC. Types of reinforced concrete retaining walls are cantilever retaining walls and counterfort retaining walls. Functions and parts of these retaining walls. In this type of retaining wall, counterforts (cantilevers) are provided on the earth side between wall and footing to support the wall, which essentially spans as a.

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Reliability—based design applied to retaining.


The material retained by the wall is generally countrrfort as backfill. Design of Lintel with Sunshade. The more the height of the wall, the closer should be the spacing of counterforts. Monte Carlo method Search for additional papers on this topic. The overturning moment is retainijg by the weight of wall and the weight of the soil above the heel slab the weight of soil over the toe is neglected.

Design of Two-way Slabs. Design of One Way Slabs. When the height of the retaining wall to be provided exceeds 6 to 7m, counterfort retaining wall prove to be economical. Before proceeding with the structural design it is necessary to ensure that the preliminary dimensions assumed for the various components of sall wall will render it safe against above referred types of failures.

  ASTM D2166 06 PDF


Based on the method of achieving stability, retaining walls are classified into the following types: Wall retaining dry and levelled backfill. Wall retaining partly submerged backfill. Wall retaining back-fill in slope: However suitable value of toe projection can be obtained from the relationship.

To avoid failure of the retaining wall it is necessary that the following requirements are satisfied. In this type of wall the base slab as well as the stem of the wall span horizontally as continuous slabs between vertical brackets known as counterforts as shown in Fig. Monte Carlo method First-order reliability method.

Showing of 32 references. Prior to start of structural design of a retaining wall it is necessary to adopt some tentative dimensions for different components of the wall. This is shown in pressure diagram in Fig. Provisions of retaining walls become necessary in the construction of hill roads, embankments, bridge abutment, basement in buildings, water reservoir, in preventive measures against soil erosion, in landscaping etc.

Let the backfill be moist or dry up to a depth h 1 below the top of wall and let the backfill below this depth i.

In this case wall has only two components i. Based on these dimensions the wall is checked for stability checked for overturning, sliding and maximum pressure at toe and in case the stability requirements are satisfied, structural design of different wall components is taken up.


This type of wall with a key is shown in Fig. This buttressed wall is identical to a counterfort retaining wall with the main difference that the vertical brackets are provided in front of the wall on face opposite to the face retaining back fill as shown in Fig.

Reliability analysis of cantilever retaining walls. Walls of a building Simulation. Towards reliability-based design for geotechnical engineering Kok Kwang Phoon Each of these components are designed as a cantilever. Besides loads due to retained material, the retaining wall may also be subjected to surcharged load due to automobile, rail road etc.

The wall consists of three components, i the stem, ii the toe, and iii the heel.

The horizontal component of all lateral pressures tends to slide the wall along its base. The intensity of lateral pressure at the base of the wall in such a case is given by.

Cantilever Retaining Walls Wall retaining dry and levelled backfill: Structural Reliability Analysis and Design. Sometimes the cantilever wall is constructed in the form of L. The lateral pressure exerted by the submerged soil is considered to comprise of the following two components.