CALDEO ASIRIA PDF

en y se completan en notas con otros originales y las tradiciones análogas de Caldeo-Asiria, Persia, Egipto, Syria, Fenicia, India, China y otros pueblos. La bandera asiria (asirio: ܐܬܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ Ata D’Athur) es la bandera que representa universalmente la nación asiria, cuyo actual diseño fue creado por George. caldeo-asiria translation english, Spanish – English dictionary, meaning, see also ‘caldeo’,caldo’,caldearse’,casa editorial’, example of use, definition.

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During a period of weakness in the East Semitic speaking kingdom of Babylonia, new tribes of West Semitic -speaking migrants [4] arrived in the region from the Levant between the 11th and 9th centuries BC.

The earliest waves consisted of Suteans and Arameansfollowed a century or so later by the Kaldua group who became known later as the Chaldeans or the Chaldees. These migrations did not affect the powerful kingdom of Assyria in the northern half of Mesopotamia, which repelled these incursions.

The short-lived 11th dynasty of the Kings of Babylon 6th century BC is conventionally known [ citation needed ] to historians as the Chaldean Dynasty daldeo, although the last rulers, Nabonidus and his son Belshazzarwere from Assyria. These nomad Chaldeans settled in the far southeastern portion of Babylonia, chiefly on the left bank of the Caaldeo. Though for a short time the name later commonly referred to the whole of southern Mesopotamia in Hebraic literature.

This was a geographical and historical misnomer as Chaldea proper was in fact only the plain in the far southeast formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigrisextending about four hundred miles along the course of these caldei and averaging about a hundred miles in width.

Its inhabitants are called Chaldeans. In the early period, between the early 9th century and late 7th century BC, mat Kaldi was the name of a small sporadically independent migrant-founded territory under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire BC in southeastern Babylonia, extending to the western shores of the Persian Gulf.

The king of Chaldea was also called the king of Bit Yakin, just as the kings of Babylonia and Assyria were regularly styled simply king of Babylon or Assur caodeo, the capital city in each case. This is especially the case ca,deo the Hebrew Biblewhich asiri substantially composed during asiroa period roughly corresponding to the period of Babylonian captivity.

Unlike the East Semitic Akkadian -speaking AkkadiansAssyrians and Babylonianswhose ancestors had been established in Mesopotamia since at least the 30th century BC, the Chaldeans caleeo not a native Mesopotamian people, but were late 10th or early 9th century BC West Semitic Levantine migrants to the south eastern corner of the region, who had played no part in the previous 3, years or so of Sumero-Akkadian and Assyro-Babylonian Mesopotamian civilization and history.

The ancient Chaldeans seem to have migrated into Mesopotamia sometime between c. This was a period of weakness in Babylonia, and its ineffectual native kings were unable to prevent new waves of semi-nomadic foreign peoples from invading and settling in the land.

Though belonging to the same West Semitic speaking ethnic group and migrating from the same Levantine regions as the earlier arriving Aramaeans, they are to be differentiated; the Assyrian king Sennacheribfor example, carefully distinguishes them in his inscriptions.

The Chaldeans were rapidly and completely assimilated into the dominant Assyro-Babylonian culture, as was the case for the earlier AmoritesKassites and Suteans ccaldeo them. By the time Babylon fell in BC, the Chaldean tribes had already disappeared as a distinct race, becoming completely absorbed into the general population of southern Mesopotamia, and the term “Chaldean” was no longer used or relevant in describing a specific ethnicity or race of men.

However, the term lingered in caleo quarters until the Seleucid period, after which it disappeared, but this later term was used only in relation to a socio-economic class of astrologers with no ethnic implications, and not a race of people or land.

Aairia nation of Chaldea in southeast Mesopotamia seems to have disappeared even before the fall of Babylon, and the succeeding Achaemenid Empire — BC did not retain a province or land called Chaldea, and made no mention of a Chaldean race in its annals.

The Chaldeans originally spoke a West Semitic language similar to but distinct from Aramaic. However, they eventually adopted the Akkadian language of the Assyrians and Babylonians. As a result of this innovation, in late periods both the Babylonian and Assyrian dialects of Akkadian became marginalised, and Mesopotamian Aramaic took its place across Mesopotamia, including among the Chaldeans. This language in the form of Eastern Aramaic neo-Aramaic dialects still remains the mother-tongue of the now Christian Assyrian people of northern Iraq, north-east Syria, south-eastern Turkey and north-western Iran to this day.

One form of this once widespread language is used in Daniel and Ezra, but zsiria use of the name “Chaldee” to describe it, first introduced by Jeromeis linguistically incorrect and a misnomer. If this city is calddeo with the ancient Sumerian city state of Urit would be within what would only many centuries faldeo become the Chaldean homeland south of the Euphrates.

However, it must be pointed out that no evidence has been discovered indicating that the Chaldeans existed asuria Mesopotamia or anywhere else in historical record at the time Calceo circa — BC lived, the evidence daldeo shows the Chaldeans as arriving some eight or nine hundred years later. The traditional identification with a site in Assyria a nation in Upper Mesopotamia predating Chaldea by well over thirteen hundred years, and never recorded in historical annals as ever having been inhabited by the much later arriving Chaldeans would then imply the much later sense of “Babylonia”.

Some interpreters have additionally identified Abraham’s birthplace with Chaldia in Anatolia on the Black Seaa distinct region utterly unrelated geographically, culturally and ethnically to the southeast Mesopotamian Chaldea.

Bandera de Asiria

The term “Chaldean” has fairly recently been revived, initially to describe those Assyrians who broke from the Assyrian Church of the East between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries and entered communion with the Catholic Church.

This is a historic, ethnic caleeo geographic inaccuracy. However, this line also reverted to the original Assyrian church, whereas the modern Chaldean Catholic Church was only founded in northern Mesopotamia The term “Chaldean Catholic” should thus be understood purely as a Christian denomination much like Baptist or Anglican rather than a racial, ethnic or historical cadleo, as the modern Chaldean Catholics are accepted as Assyrian people, [16] later asieia to Catholicism, and long indigenous to the Assyrian homeland in northern Mesopotamia, rather than relating to long extinct Chaldeans who hailed from the Levant and settled in the far southeastern parts of Mesopotamia before wholly disappearing during the sixth century BC.

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There has been no accredited study nor historical, archaeological, linguistic, genetic, geographic or anthropological evidence that links the modern Chaldean Catholics of northern Iraq to the ancient Chaldeans of southeastern Iraq.

The asiriz points clearly to their being one and the same people as, and hailing from the same region as, the Assyrians. In other words, they are in fact a part of the Assyrian continuity. The naming by Rome is believed to be due to a misinterpretation of the term Ur Kasdimthe supposed north Mesopotamian birthplace of Abraham in Hebraic tradition as Ur of the Chaldeesand a reluctance to use the earlier terms, such aisria Assyrians, East Assyrians, East Syrians and Nestorians, due to their connotations with the Assyrian Church of the East and Syriac Orthodox Church.

It is noteworthy that the term “Chaldeans” already asirka a long history of misapplication by Rome, [18] having been previously officially used by the Council of Florence in AD as a new name for a group of Awiria Nestorians of Cyprus who entered in Full Communion with the Catholic Church.

Rome then used the term Chaldeans to indicate the members of the Church of the East in Communion with Rome primarily in order to avoid the terms NestorianAssyrian and Syriacwhich were capdeo unacceptable, having connotations to churches doctrinally and politically at odds with The Vatican. In addition, Rome had also long inaccurately used the name Chaldea zsiria designate the completely unrelated Chaldia in Asia Minor on the Black Sea.

The region that the Chaldeans eventually made their homeland was in relatively poor southeastern Mesopotamia, at the head of the Persian Gulf. They appear to have migrated into southern Babylonia from the Levant at some unknown point between the end of the reign of Ninurta-kudurri-usur II a contemporary of Tiglath-Pileser II circa BC, and the start of the reign of Marduk-zakir-shumi I in BC, although there is no historical proof of their existence prior to the late s BC.

For perhaps a century or so after settling in the area, these semi-nomadic migrant Chaldean tribes had no impact on the pages of history, seemingly remaining subjugated by the native Akkadian speaking kings of Babylon or by perhaps regionally influential Aramean tribes. The main players in southern Xsiria during this period were Babylonia and Assyria, together with Elam to the east and the Aramaeans, who had already settled in the region a century or so prior to the arrival of the Chaldeans.

The very first written historical attestation of the existence of Chaldeans occurs in BC, [20] in adiria annals of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser IIIwho mentions invading the southeastern extremes of Babylonia and subjugating one Mushallim-Mardukthe chief wsiria the Amukani tribe and overall leader of the Kaldu tribes, [21] together with capturing the town of Baqaniextracting tribute from Adinichief of the Bet-Dakkurianother Chaldean tribe.

Shalmanesser III had invaded Babylonia at the request of its own king, Asiriia Ithe Babylonian king being threatened by his own rebellious relations, together with powerful Aramean tribes pleaded with the more csldeo Assyrian king for help.

The subjugation of the Chaldean tribes by the Assyrian king appears to have been an aside, as they were not at that time a powerful force, or a threat to the native Babylonian king. Chaldean leaders had by this time already adopted Assyro-Babylonian names, religion, language and customs, indicating that they had become Akkadianized to a great degree.

The Chaldeans remained quietly ruled by the native Babylonians who were in turn subjugated by their Assyrian relations for the next seventy-two years, only coming to historical prominence for the first time in Babylonia in BC, when a previously unknown Chaldean named Marduk-apla-usur usurped the throne from the native Babylonian king Marduk-bel-zeri — BC.

The latter was a vassal of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser IV — BCwho was otherwise occupied quelling a civil war in Assyria at the time. This was to set a precedent for all future Chaldean aspirations on Babylon during the Neo Assyrian Empire ; always too weak to confront a strong Assyria alone and directly, the Chaldeans awaited periods when Assyrian kings were distracted elsewhere in their vast empire, or engaged in internal conflicts, then, in alliance with other powers stronger than themselves usually Elamthey made a bid for control over Babylonia.

Shalmaneser IV attacked and defeated Marduk-apla-usur, retaking northern Babylonia and forcing on him a border treaty in Assyria’s favour. The Assyrians allowed him to remain on the throne, although subject to Assyria. Babylonia appears to have been in a state of chaos during this time, with the north occupied by Assyria, its throne occupied by foreign Chaldeans, and continual civil unrest throughout the land.

Chaldean rule proved short lived.

A native Babylonian king named Nabonassar — BC defeated and overthrew the Chaldean usurpers in BC, restored indigenous rule, and successfully stabilised Babylonia. The Chaldeans once more faded into obscurity for the next three decades. During this time both the Babylonians and the Chaldean and Aramean migrant groups who had settled in the land once more fell completely under the yoke of the powerful Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III — BCa asirria who introduced Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of his empire.

The Assyrian king at first made Nabonassar and his successor native Babylonian kings Nabu-nadin-zeriNabu-suma-ukin II and Nabu-mukin-zeri his subjects, but decided to rule Babylonia directly from BC.

He defeated and drove out the Scythians and Cimmerians who had attacked Assyria’s Persian and Median vassal colonies in the region. At the same time, Egypt began encouraging and supporting rebellion against Assyria in Calxeo and Canaanforcing the Assyrians to send troops to deal with the Egyptians. These events allowed the Chaldeans to once more attempt to assert themselves.

Ca,deo the Scythians and Cimmerians vanquished, the Medes and Persians pledging loyalty, and the Egyptians defeated and ejected from southern Canaan, Sargon II was free at last to deal with the Chaldeans, Babylonians and Elamites. After defeat by the Assyrians, Merodach-Baladan fled to his protectors in Elam.

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The next challenge to Assyrian domination came from the Elamites in BC, with Nergal-ushezib deposing and murdering Ashur-nadin-shumi — BCthe Assyrian prince who was king of Babylon and son of Sennacherib. The Chaldeans and Babylonians again allied with their more powerful Elamite neighbours in this endeavour. This prompted the enraged Assyrian king Sennacherib to invade and subjugate Elam and Chaldea and to sack Babylon, laying waste to and largely destroying the city.

Babylon was regarded as a sacred city by all Mesopotamians, including the Assyrians, and this act eventually resulted to Sennacherib’s being murdered by his own sons while he was praying to the god Nisroch in Nineveh. He completely rebuilt Babylon and brought peace to the region. For the next 60 or so years Babylon cladeo Chaldea remained peacefully under direct Assyrian control.

The Chaldeans remained subjugated and quiet during this period, and the next major revolt in Babylon against the Assyrian empire was fermented not by a Chaldean, Babylonian or Elamite, but by Shamash-shum-ukinwho was an Assyrian king of Babylon, and elder brother of Ashurbanipal BCthe new ruler of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Shamash-shum-ukin — BC had become infused with Babylonian nationalism after sixteen years peacefully subject to his brother, and despite being Assyrian himself, declared that the city of Babylon and not Nineveh or Ashur should be the seat of the empire.

In BC, he raised a powerful coalition of peoples resentful of their subjugation to Assyria against his own brother Ashurbanipal.

caldeo-asiria translation English | Spanish dictionary | Reverso

The alliance included the Babylonians, PersiansCxldeo, MedesElamitesSuteans, Arameans, IsraelitesArabs and Canaanitestogether with some disaffected elements among the Assyrians themselves. After a bitter struggle lasting five years, the Assyrian calddo triumphed over his rebellious asiiria in BC, Elam was utterly destroyed, and the Babylonians, Persians, Medes, Chaldeans, Arabs and others were savagely punished.

An Assyrian governor named Kandalanu was then placed on the throne of Babylon to rule on behalf of Ashurbanipal. The next 22 years were peaceful, and neither the Babylonians nor Chaldeans posed a threat to the dominance of Ashurbanipal. However, after the death of the mighty Ashurbanipal and Kandalanu in BC, the Neo Assyrian Empire descended into a series of bitter internal dynastic civil wars that were to be the cause of its downfall.

Ashur-etil-ilani — BC ascended to the throne of the empire in BC, but was immediately engulfed in a torrent of fierce rebellions instigated by rival claimants. Sin-shar-ishkun — BCthe brother of Ashur-etil-ilani, took back the throne of empire from Sin-shumu-lishir in BC, but was then aslria faced with unremitting rebellion against his rule by his own people.

Continual conflict among the Assyrians led to a myriad of subject peoples, from Cyprus to Csldeo and The Caucasus to Egypt, quietly reasserting their independence and ceasing to pay tribute to Assyria.

Nabopolassara previously obscure and unknown Chaldean chieftain, followed the opportunistic tactics laid down by previous Chaldean leaders to take advantage of the chaos and anarchy gripping Assyria and Babylonia and seized the city of Babylon in BC with the help of its native Babylonian inhabitants.

Sin-shar-ishkun amassed a powerful army and marched into Babylon to regain control of the region. Nabopolassar was saved from likely destruction because yet another massive Assyrian rebellion broke out in Assyria proper, including the capital Awiria, which forced the Assyrian king caldeeo turn back in order to quell the revolt.

Nabopolassar took advantage of this situation, seizing the ancient city of Nippur in BC, a mainstay of pro-Assyrianism in Babylonia, and thus Babylonia as a whole.

However, his position was still far from secure, and bitter fighting continued in the Babylonian heartlands from to BC, with Assyrian forces encamped in Babylonia in an attempt to cwldeo Nabopolassar. Nabopolassar attempted a counterattack, marched his army into Assyria proper in BC, and tried to besiege Assur and Arrapha modern Kirkukbut was defeated by Sin-shar-ishkun and chased back into Babylonia after being driven from Idiqlat modern Tikrit at the southernmost end of Assyria.

A stalemate seemed to have ensued, with Nabopolassar unable to make any inroads into Assyria despite its greatly weakened state, and Sin-shar-ishkun unable to eject Nabopolassar from Babylonia due to constant rebellions and civil war among his own people. Nabopolassar’s position, and the fate of the Assyrian empire, was sealed when he entered into an alliance with another of Assyria’s former vassals, the Medes, the now dominant people of what was to become Persia.

The Median Cyaxares had aisria recently taken advantage of the anarchy in the Assyrian Empire, while officially ccaldeo a vassal of Assyria, caldro took the opportunity to meld the Iranian peoples ; the MedesPersiansSagartians and Parthiansinto a large and powerful Asiriaa force.

The Medes, Persians, Parthians, Chaldeans and Babylonians formed an alliance that also included the Scythians and Cimmerians to the north. Nabopolassar, still pinned down in southern Mesopotamia, was not involved in this major breakthrough against Assyria. From this point however, the alliance of Medes, Persians, Chaldeans, Babylonians, Sagartians, Scythians and Cimmerians fought in unison against Assyria. Despite the sorely depleted state of Assyria, bitter fighting ensued.

Throughout BC the alliance of powers continued to make inroads into Assyria itself, although in BC the Assyrians somehow rallied to score a number of counterattacking victories over the Medes-Persians, Babylonians-Chaldeans and Scythians-Cimmerians. This led to a coalition of forces ranged against it to calreo and launch a massive combined attack in BC, finally besieging and sacking Nineveh in capdeo BC, killing Sin-shar-ishkun in the process. A new Assyrian king, Ashur-uballit II — BCtook the crown amidst the house-to-house fighting in Nineveh, and refused a request to bow in vassalage to the rulers of caldep alliance.

He managed to fight his way out of Nineveh and reach the northern Calseo city of Harranwhere he founded a new capital. Assyria resisted for another seven years until BC, when the remnants of the Assyrian army and the army of the Egyptians whose dynasty had also been installed as puppets of the Assyrians were defeated at Karchemish. Nabopolassar and his Median, Scythian and Cimmerian allies were now in possession of much of the huge Neo Assyrian Empire.